Arjun S Nanda, Ke Wu, Iryna Irkliyenko, Brian Woo, Megan S Ostrowski, Andrew S Clugston, Leanne C Sayles, Lingru Xu, Ansuman T Satpathy, Hao G Nguyen, E Alejandro Sweet-Cordero, Hani Goodarzi, Sivakanthan Kasinathan, Vijay Ramani
Nature Genetics, 9 May 2024

Concurrent readout of sequence and base modifications from long unamplified DNA templates by Pacific Biosciences of California (PacBio) single-molecule sequencing requires large amounts of input material. Here we adapt Tn5 transposition to introduce hairpin oligonucleotides and fragment (tagment) limiting quantities of DNA for generating PacBio-compatible circular molecules. We developed two methods that implement tagmentation and use 90-99% less input than current protocols: (1) single-molecule real-time sequencing by tagmentation (SMRT-Tag), which allows detection of genetic variation and CpG methylation; and (2) single-molecule adenine-methylated oligonucleosome sequencing assay by tagmentation (SAMOSA-Tag), which uses exogenous adenine methylation to add a third channel for probing chromatin accessibility. SMRT-Tag of 40 ng or more human DNA (approximately 7,000 cell equivalents) yielded data comparable to gold standard whole-genome and bisulfite sequencing. SAMOSA-Tag of 30,000-50,000 nuclei resolved single-fiber chromatin structure, CTCF binding and DNA methylation in patient-derived prostate cancer xenografts and uncovered metastasis-associated global epigenome disorganization. Tagmentation thus promises to enable sensitive, scalable and multimodal single-molecule genomics for diverse basic and clinical applications.