Bingfei Yu, Quanming Shi, Julia A. Belk, Kathryn E. Yost, Kevin R. Parker, Rui Li,Betty B. Liu, Huang Huang, Daniel Lingwood, William J. Greenleaf, Mark M. Davis, Ansuman T. Satpathy, and Howard Y. Chang
Cell, 13 December 2022

Cells communicate with each other via receptor-ligand interactions. Here, we describe lentiviral-mediated cell entry by engineered receptor-ligand interaction (ENTER) to display ligand proteins, deliver payloads, and record receptor specificity. We optimize ENTER to decode interactions between T cell receptor (TCR)-MHC peptides, antibody-antigen, and other receptor-ligand pairs. A viral presentation strategy allows to capture interactions between B cell receptor and any antigen. We engineer ENTER to deliver genetic payloads to antigen-specific T or B cells to selectively modulate cellular behavior in mixed populations. Single-cell readout of ENTER by RNA sequencing (ENTER-seq) enables multiplexed enumeration of antigen specificities, TCR clonality, cell type, and states of individual T cells. ENTER-seq of CMV-seropositive patient blood samples reveals the viral epitopes that drive effector memory T cell differentiation and inter-clonal vs. intra-clonal phenotypic diversity targeting the same epitope. ENTER technology enables systematic discovery of receptor specificity, linkage to cell fates, and antigen-specific cargo delivery.