Pai JA, Satpathy AT.
Nature Methods, 19 July 2021

T cells express T cell receptors (TCRs) composed of somatically recombined TCRα and TCRβ chains, which mediate recognition of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-antigen complexes and drive the antigen-specific adaptive immune response to pathogens and cancer. The TCR repertoire in each individual is highly diverse, which allows for recognition of a wide array of foreign antigens, but also presents a challenge in analyzing this response using conventional methods. Recent studies have developed high-throughput sequencing technologies to identify TCR sequences, analyze their antigen specificities using experimental and computational tools, and pair TCRs with transcriptional and epigenetic cell state phenotypes in single cells. In this Review, we highlight these technological advances and describe how they have been applied to discover fundamental insights into T cell-mediated immunity.